Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Atomic Structure    Stoichiometry    Bonding    Energetics    Kinetics    Equilibria    Redox    Group 2    Group 7    Alkanes    Alkenes and Alcohols    Organic Analysis    Thermodynamics    Kinetics 2    Equilibrium Constant Kp    Electrode Potentials & Cells    Acids, Bases & Buffer    Periodicity    Transition Metals    Inorganic Compounds in Acqeous Solutions    Optical Isomerism    Aldehydes & Ketones    Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives    Aromatic Chemistry    Amines    Polymers    Amino Acids, Proteins & DNA    Organic Synthesis    NMR    Chromatography   

Alkanes & Halogenoalkanes


Organic nomenclature is the subject of naming molecules in organic chemistry. All molecules' names follow the IUPAC naming system, with very specific naming schemes and priority rules. This ensures consistency within communication of organic molecules between chemists.

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Alkanes are molecules with only carbon and hydrogn only. They have the general formula CnH2n+2.

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Combustion and Pollutants

Alkanes can be combusted as fuel. Incomplete combustion of alkanes can produce carbon monoxide, which is toxic to the human body.

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Free Radical Substitution

Free Radical substituion is an organic mechanism that allows us to synthesise halogenoalkanes from a halogen and an alkane under UV light. The steps within free radical substituion include initiation, in which two halogen free radicals are formed under UV light, propagation, which is a chain reaction of free radicals, and termination, in which free radicals are joined back together.

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Nucleophilic Substitution

Nucleophilic Substitution is the process in which a partially positively charged carbon atom is being attacked by lone pairs on a nucleophile. The original function group on the carbon atom is then being substituted by the nucleophile instead. Nucleophiles are electron pair donars and some common exmaples include the cyanide ion, the ammoonia molecule and the hydroxide ion.

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Elimination Reaction

During elimination, a warm ethanolic hydroxide ion attacks a hydrogen on a halogenoalkane. This forms an alkene and a hydrogen halide is formed. Pleasen note that ethanolic NaOH carries out elimination whereas aqeuous NaOH carries out nucleophilic substitution.

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