Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Atomic Structure    Stoichiometry    Bonding    Energetics    Kinetics    Equilibria    Redox    Group 2    Group 7    Alkanes    Alkenes and Alcohols    Organic Analysis    Thermodynamics    Kinetics 2    Equilibrium Constant Kp    Electrode Potentials & Cells    Acids, Bases & Buffer    Periodicity    Transition Metals    Inorganic Compounds in Acqeous Solutions    Optical Isomerism    Aldehydes & Ketones    Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives    Aromatic Chemistry    Amines    Polymers    Amino Acids, Proteins & DNA    Organic Synthesis    NMR    Chromatography   

Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives

Carboxylic Acids and Esters

Carboxylic acids are weak acids and dissociate only partially in water. They react with alcohol through esterification with conc sulfuric acid to form an ester. Carboxylic acids can be tested with sodium carbonate, with the positive test result being effervescence.

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Hydrolysis of Esters

Esters can be hydrolysed with acid or an alkaline. Unlike acid hydrolysis producing carboxylic acid, base hydrolysis produces a carboxylate ion and an alcohol.

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Triglycerides are molecules with a glycerol and 3 fatty acids. The alkaline-catalysed hydrolsis of triglycerides forms soap as the sodium salt is being used as soap.

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Biodiesel is a mixture of methy esters of long chain carboxylic acids. Vegetable oils can be converted into biodiesel by reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH catalyst.

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Acylation is the process of adding an acyl group onto a nucleophile using nucleophilic addition-substitution reactions. Nucleophiles such as ammonia, primary amines, water and alcohol can be reacted with acyl chlorides or acid anhydrides, which are acylating agents, to gain an acyl group.

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