s FactRecall - Chemistry Notes


Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Atomic Structure    Stoichiometry    Bonding    Energetics    Kinetics    Equilibria    Redox    Group 2    Group 7    Alkanes    Alkenes and Alcohols    Organic Analysis    Thermodynamics    Kinetics 2    Equilibrium Constant Kp    Electrode Potentials & Cells    Acids, Bases & Buffer    Periodicity    Transition Metals    Inorganic Compounds in Acqeous Solutions    Optical Isomerism    Aldehydes & Ketones    Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives    Aromatic Chemistry    Amines    Polymers    Amino Acids, Proteins & DNA    Organic Synthesis    NMR    Chromatography   



There are some general equations you need to know within chemistry such as neutralisation and thermal decomposition. Solubility rules allow us to determine if a certain compound is soluble in water.

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Ionic Bonding

Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions. Compounds such as sodium chloride (table salt) is bonded by ionic bonds. In ionic bonds, there is a transfer of electrons to achieve stable outer shells within each atom.

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Metallic Bonding

Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.

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Covalent Bonding

A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons. Electrostatic forces of attraction between the nuclei of both atoms and the shared pair of electrons hold the covalent bond together. Covalent bonds can be formed by sigma or pi bonds. A dative covalent bond is when both electrons in a covalent bond come from the same atom.

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Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to withdraw or pull a bonding pair of electrons in a covalent bond. Difference in electronegativity allows for the rise of intermolecular forces, as well as allowing organim mechanisms to occur.

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Intermolecular Forces

There are 3 main types of intermolecular forces: Van der Waals, Permanent Dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding.

Van der Waals forces occur due to instantaneous dipoles forming from unequal distribution of electrons, permanent dipole-dipole occur between 2 slighty-positive and slighty-negative atoms due to electronegative differences. Hydrogen bonding is a stronger version of permanent dipoe-dipole such that it is the electrostatic attraction between an slightly-positive hydrogen atom and a slighty-negative nitrogen/oxygen/fluorine.

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Crystal Structures

Giant covalent, simple molecular, metallic, giant ionic lattice are the 4 types of crystal structures. Due to their nature of bonding,they all have different properties and boiling/melting points.

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Shapes of Molecules

The electron repulsion theory states that electrons will try to spread out as far as possible to minimise repulsion. Lone pair of electrons repel more than bonding pair of electrons. Hence we have different types of molecular shapes depending on the amount of bonding/lone pair of electrons the molecule has.

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