Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Atomic Structure    Stoichiometry    Bonding    Energetics    Kinetics    Equilibria    Redox    Group 2    Group 7    Alkanes    Alkenes and Alcohols    Organic Analysis    Thermodynamics    Kinetics 2    Equilibrium Constant Kp    Electrode Potentials & Cells    Acids, Bases & Buffer    Periodicity    Transition Metals    Inorganic Compounds in Acqeous Solutions    Optical Isomerism    Aldehydes & Ketones    Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives    Aromatic Chemistry    Amines    Polymers    Amino Acids, Proteins & DNA    Organic Synthesis    NMR    Chromatography   



Amines are derivatives of ammonia where one or more hydrogen are replaced by either an alkyl group or an aromatic group. Amines act as weak bases as lone pair on the nitrogen can accept protons by forming a dative covalent bond with H+. Tertiary amines are the strongest base and aromatic amines are the weakest base. Aliphatic amines have stronger base properties due to the inductive effect of the alkly grousp onto the lone pair on the nitrogen, increasing the electron density on the nitrogen atom.

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Reactions of Amines

Amines can be formed from the nucleophilic substitution of a halogenalkane with excress ethanolic ammonia. It can also be formed from the reduction of nitriles using Ni with hydrogen at high temperature and pressure.

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