Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Atomic Structure    Stoichiometry    Bonding    Energetics    Kinetics    Equilibria    Redox    Group 2    Group 7    Alkanes    Alkenes and Alcohols    Organic Analysis    Thermodynamics    Kinetics 2    Equilibrium Constant Kp    Electrode Potentials & Cells    Acids, Bases & Buffer    Periodicity    Transition Metals    Inorganic Compounds in Acqeous Solutions    Optical Isomerism    Aldehydes & Ketones    Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives    Aromatic Chemistry    Amines    Polymers    Amino Acids, Proteins & DNA    Organic Synthesis    NMR    Chromatography   

Aromatic Chemistry

Electrophilic Substitution

Electrophilic subsitution is the process of introducing a group to an electron dense benzene ring. In a nitration reaction, the electrophile NO2+ is being attracted to the electron dense benzene ring which substitutes hydrogen atom(s) bonded the carbons on benzene.

This reaction allows us to synthesise a nitrobenzene from benene which could be useful for explosives or to further synthesis phenylamines by reduction.

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Friedal-Crafts Acylation

Friedal Crafts acylation is the electrophilic substitution of an acyl group onto a benzene ring. The electrophile required must be generated with the reaction of an acyl chloride with an aluminium chloride catalyst.

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