Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Atomic Structure    Stoichiometry    Bonding    Energetics    Kinetics    Equilibria    Redox    Group 2    Group 7    Alkanes    Alkenes and Alcohols    Organic Analysis    Thermodynamics    Kinetics 2    Equilibrium Constant Kp    Electrode Potentials & Cells    Acids, Bases & Buffer    Periodicity    Transition Metals    Inorganic Compounds in Acqeous Solutions    Optical Isomerism    Aldehydes & Ketones    Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives    Aromatic Chemistry    Amines    Polymers    Amino Acids, Proteins & DNA    Organic Synthesis    NMR    Chromatography   

Aldehydes & Ketones

Aldehydes and Ketones

Aldehydes can be distinguised from other organic compounds by using either Fehling's Solution (which turns red in the presence of aldehydes) or Tollen's Reagent (which forms a silver mirror).

Aldehydes or ketones can be reduced to primary and secondary alocohols respectively by using NaBH4 in methaol with water.

Download PDF (2 pages)


Hydroxynitriles can be formed by the nucleophilic addition of an aldehyde or a ketone with acidfied KCN and heat under reflux.

Download PDF (1 page)