Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Atomic Structure    Stoichiometry    Bonding    Energetics    Kinetics    Equilibria    Redox    Group 2    Group 7    Alkanes    Alkenes and Alcohols    Organic Analysis    Thermodynamics    Kinetics 2    Equilibrium Constant Kp    Electrode Potentials & Cells    Acids, Bases & Buffer    Periodicity    Transition Metals    Inorganic Compounds in Acqeous Solutions    Optical Isomerism    Aldehydes & Ketones    Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives    Aromatic Chemistry    Amines    Polymers    Amino Acids, Proteins & DNA    Organic Synthesis    NMR    Chromatography   

Acids, Bases & Buffer

Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

The definition for Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases state that acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors. This is different to the definition of Lewid bases/acids.

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Strong and Weak Acids

The pH scale is a logarithmic scale of the concentration of H+ ions. Strong acids dissociate completely whereas weak acids only partially dissociates in solution.

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pH Curves

pH Curves show the relationship of pH against the volume of base/acid added during a titration. At equilavence where the colour change occurs, the pH curve has a sharp vertical rise.

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Buffer Action

A buffer solution maintains an approximately constant pH, despite dilution or addition of small amount of acid or base. For example, when a small amount of acid is added to an acidic buffer, [H+] increases and hence excess H+ and A- are combined and the equilibrium shifts left, this causes [H+] to decrease close to the original value.

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