Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Particle Physics    Quantum Physics    Waves    Optics    Mechanics    Materials    Electricity    Circular Motion    Simple Harmonic Motion    Thermal Physics    Gravitational Fields    Electric Fields    Capacitors    Magnetic Fields    Electromagnetic Induction    Radioactivity    Nuclear Energy    Discovery of the Electron    Wave-Particle Duality    Special Relativity   


Atomic Models

There are different models of the atom that have been improved and changed over the years.

  • Dolton's atomic theory of matter described that all matter is made up of tiny marticles called atoms.
  • Later, Niel's Bohr's model of the atom describes that the mass of an atom contains protons and that electrons are arranged in definite energy levels.
  • Rutherford then improved on this model by saying that nearly all of the mass of an atom is concentrated at the positively charged nucleus and that the majority of an atom is empty space.

  • Download PDF (1 page)

    Rutherford Scattering

    Rutherford fired alpha particles at a thin metal foil. The result of Rutherford's experiment concluded that most of the atom's mass is concentrated in a small region and that the nucleus is positively charged because it repels alpha particles.

    Download PDF (1 page)

    Properties of Nuclear Radiation

    Alpha decay, beta decay and gamma radiation are used in smoke alarms, thickness control and radioactive tracers respectively. Alpha radiation has a short range but highly ionising, the opposite is true for gamma radiation.

    Download PDF (1 page)

    Radioactive Decay

    Radioactive decay is a random nature. However, large amounts can be modelled mathematically using a negative exponential equation.

    Download PDF (1 page)
    Download Editable Goodnotes (1 page)

    Measuring Nuclear Radius

    Nuclear radius can be measured using high energy electron diffraction (which is more accurate) or the distance of cloest approach which equates the kinetic enegry of an alpha particle to the electric potential energy between the alpha particle and the nucleus.

    Download PDF (2 pages)
    Download Editable Goodnotes (2 pages)