Applicable for A-Level, IB, DSE, AP-Level Exams

Biological Molecules    Cell Structure    Cell Transport    Immunology    Exchange    Mass Transport    DNA, Genes & Protein Synthesis    Genetic Diversity    Biodiversity    Photosynthesis    Respiration    Energy & Ecosystems    Stimuli and Response    Nervous Coordination & Muscles    Homeostasis    Inheritance    Populations & Evolution    Ecosystems    Gene Expression    Recombinant DNA Technology   

Eukaryotic Cells

Eukaryotic cells are cells from animals, plants, fungus and algae. Be sure to learn all the importantn organelles within an eukaryotic cell and their respective functions.

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Prokaryotic Cells

Prokayotic cells are cells from bacteira for example. There are important distinctions you need to know between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, for example, prokaryotic cells contain plasmids and their DNA are not associated with histone proteins.

Viruses are acellular and are nucleic acid surrounded by proteins. The enzyme reverse transcriptase converts RNA within HIV into DNA to be incorportaed into the host cell's DNA.

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Cell Analysis

Cell organelles can be broken apart using homogenation and ultracentrifugation. Homogenation are where organelles are split aprt using a homogeniser. The cell debris are then filtered out and the filtrate is then placed into a centrifuge. Initially it is spun a low speed to obtain the nucleus which forms a pellet at the bottom. The supernatant is then transferred and spun at a higher and higher speeds until lighter organelles are separated out.

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Cell Cycle

Within the cell cycle, we have G1, S, G2 and Mitosis phases. Within mitosis, there are also 5 stages: PMAT and cytokinesis. PMAT are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase respectively. Tumour supressor genes and protooncogenes play a role in regulating cell division to prevent cancer.

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